In East Germany this boundary was, until the fall of its communist government in 1989, marked by defenses designed to prevent escape. This devotion to hard work has combined with a public demeanour—which is at once reserved and assertive—to produce a stereotype of the German people as aloof and distant.The 185 square miles (480 square km) of the “island” of , the city declined in national and international significance until 1989–90, when a popular and peaceful uprising toppled the East German government and soon after restored a united Berlin as the capital of a reunified Germany. Clearly, modern Germany struggles to balance its national interests with those of an influx of political and economic refugees from far afield, especially North Africa, Turkey, and South Asia, an influx that has fueled ethnic tensions and swelled the ranks of nationalist political parties, particularly in eastern Germany, where unemployment was double that of the west. Yet Germans prize both their private friendships and their friendly relations with neighbours and visitors, place a high value on leisure and culture, and enjoy the benefits of life in a liberal democracy that has become ever more integrated with and central to a united Europe..Another powerful force determining surface configuration is , or Variscan, mountains—had crossed Europe in the area of the Central German Uplands.Yet the forces of erosion were sufficient to reduce these mountains to almost level surfaces, on which a series of secondary sedimentary rocks of .
Valley had some erosive effect, but they mainly contributed sheets of glacial deposits.
All are centrepieces of Germany’s thriving tourist economy, which brings millions of visitors to the country each year, drawn by its natural beauty, history, culture, and cuisine (including its renowned wines and beers).
The name Germany has long described not a particular place but the loose, fluid polity of Germanic-speaking peoples that held sway over much of western Europe north of the Alps for millennia.
The sequence of Triassic rocks ends south and east against the great Jurassic scarp of the (Schwäbische Alb), rising to more than 3,300 feet (1,000 metres), and its continuation, the lower Franconian Alp (Fränkische Alb).
Large parts of the plateaus and lowlands in the eastern region are covered with loess and are farmed, but the massive fringing the Black Forest and the Keuper scarp are mainly wooded.